Medieval Weapons: The Pollaxe (AKA Poleaxe)

The medieval pollaxe (or poleaxe) is a very important weapon which reached peak popularity in 15th century Europe. It is optimized for armored combat and is as complex as the longsword in its construction and techniques of use. It can be found in many medieval fighting treatises. RELATED VIDEOS:

How to avoid traffic accidents in medieval times

Jason discusses crotal bells and the sounds of the medieval landscape and experiments to find out how it might have helped medieval road safety. Credits: Ghost Direction, Camera, Sound, Editing Kasumi Presenter Jason Kingsley OBE Tweets by RebellionJason Tweets by ModernHistoryTV Tweets by Rebellion Music licensed from PremiumBeat.

16th Century Sporting Crossbow with Cranequin

A film looking at a very late 16th – 17thC sporting or hunting crossbow spanned using an open case cranequin. The bow draws around 550 – 600lbs and has a holly stock with bone and horn detailing. If you are interested in custom work and crossbows look at If you are interested in budget…

Changing Interpretations: The Zornhau Versetzen

  It is often said that “the only constant is change,” and the study of historical martial arts does nothing to deny that aphorism.  I recently had someone complain that a picture in my book, The Knightly Art of the Longsword (, 2009), shows me doing a displacement differently from how I teach it now,…

Medieval Helmets: The Hounskull or ‘Pig-Faced’ Bascinet c.1400

The hounskull or ‘pig-faced’ bascinet was incredibly popular right across Europe between about 1380 and 1420. Here we have a look at a good quality replica and consider some aspects of the design of this great medieval helmet.

Short Swords For Different Jobs

Shorts swords, known also as hangers, have been made for centuries as soldiers sidearms, but they are not all the same. Details of their designs mean that they are uniquely adapted for specific roles. Extra videos on Patreon:

Practice Notes for Sunday, Dec 15, 2019

We covered a lot of material in Sunday’s rapier class. For your benefit, I’ve taken the time to writing up some notes and posting them in our new website…’Ange/p/Main/t/commentary  

Could this device have changed medieval European history?

Jason investigates a device that could have been attached to a longbow and tests how practical it would be to use from horseback. Credits: Direction, Camera, Sound, Editing Kasumi Presenter Jason Kingsley OBE With thanks to Jörg Sprave of The Slingshot Channel Tweets by RebellionJason Tweets by ModernHistoryTV Tweets by Rebellion Music licensed from…

The Best British Military Sword Hilt?

Subjectively people like what they like, but I believe that objectively the heavy cavalry guard is one of the best sword guards every made and should probably have been replicated for other lines of the British Army and even Navy. In this video we look at some antique swords and consider why some guards are…

Steel Buckler Shield Fully Tested and Reviewed

Thrand test and reviews the Large Buckler Shield from Medeival Shoppe Australia. Thrand uses it in medieval combat and hits it with real medieval weaponry. Special Thanks to the SCA Shire of Seawinds and Marcus, Matthew Price and Lord Owen Longstrider. Plus special thanks to Chris Barker for GOLDEN AXE – METAL GUITAR MEDLEY Large…

Tiredness Can Kill – Gaming, RPGs, Wargaming & Martial Arts

Tiredness is a really underestimated factor in combat and life in the general. Especially worth considering in application to historical interpretation, gaming, wargaming, roleplaying games and martial arts.

No Syrup Allowed! – New England Pancakes From 1777

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Which Sword Is Easiest To Use? Katana vs Longsword

It may seem like a silly question, but it is the sort of question that get asked a lot. There is a prevailing view that some weapons are simply easier to use than others. But does that apply to two of the most iconic sword types from history, the katana and the longsword? Fundamentally they…

What medieval animal is seldom used today?

Jason discusses animal power in the medieval period and goes into detail about a relatively unknown but important medieval animal. Credits: The mule with no name Direction, Camera, Sound, Editing Kasumi Presenter Jason Kingsley OBE Tweets by RebellionJason Tweets by ModernHistoryTV Tweets by Rebellion Music licensed from PremiumBeat.

HEMA Weekly

What’s up in Historical Fencing This week’s craftsman: Brisbane Swords HEMA Gear This week’s video: Mair Dagger A New Hope, For Throats. SIGI Forge sword and buckler review. This week’s article: Historical Injury vs Modern Tournament Targeting If you want to appear in next HEMA Weekly – don’t hesitate to write! Become a Patron!

19th Century Weekly

What’s up in Reenactment of 1789-1914 Event reports: Reenactment of Battle of Austerlitz 30 Nov 2019 The battle of Arcole reenactment – November 2019 This week’s craftsman: C&D Jarnagin This week’s videos: Building Log Cabin Walls Spies, Espionage, And Secret Writing In 1770’s Rifle vs Musket Maybe spadroons were perfect swords in their time Sword…

Soldier’s Weekly

What’s up in WWII Reenactment Event reports: WWII battle reenactment – downtown Waxahachie, Texas This week’s videos: WW2 REENACTMENT LIFE WHAT IT’S LIKE How to make your digital WW2 reenactment photos look more authentic! Small film studio making good WW2 movie WW2 German Tornister, Restoration This week’s craftsman: If you want to appear in…

Knight’s Weekly

What’s up in Middle Ages Reenactment Upcoming events:  8. Erstürmung des mittelalterlichen Weihnachtsmarktes El Dragón Dorado Noc válečníků 17 Event report: Medieval Battle, kingdom come deliverance IRL, reenactment, Battle of Mästerby, gotland sweden 2019 Sarasota Medieval Fair 2019 – Let the Dangerous Games begin! Opening Day – Full Tour & Review This week’s craftsman: GoHurt…

Viking’s Weekly

What’s up in Early Medieval Reenactment Upcoming events: Yule 2019 – grand camp privé du solstice d’hiver, venez nombreux Event reports: Viking Warriors Re-enactment | Walsworth Festival 2019 | WryngWyrm Gippeswyc viking festival 2019 This week’s craftsman: Kram Liwocz This week’s videos: Viking Age Forged in Fire Competition Dane Axe vs Cavalry? Gallowglass Donegal Axe…

Battle of Austerlitz Documentary & Napoleon’s Muskets – Great Battles Review

The Discovery History series Great Battles covers the Battle of Austerlitz in the second season. Unfortunately, they made some very misleading statements about the Charleville muskets used by Napoleon’s army. Let’s have a look at their errors in this video. Extra videos on Patreon:

A Wonderful Struggle: The 16th Century Art of Civic Combat, Part 2

The procession arrives at the square. Publicans erects their tents and tap their barrels. Musicians collect into bands, and other performers wander the incoming crowd. Dominating the center of the square is a square fence, large enough to host several pairs of fencers at once. Spectators gather while fencers warm up. The host, known throughout…

470lbs Belt and Lever Medieval crossbow

This medieval style plain soldiers crossbow (I call it a munition style crossbow) is 470lbs and is set up to use both a goats foot lever and a spanning belt to load. As far as I know this was not a usual arrangement at the time, but the customer required this adaptation. The crossbow has…

The Roman Spear and Shield used together – Triarii

The Roman shield (scutum) is most famously paired with the sword (gladius), but they were commonly paired with the spear in the earlier and later periods. Here we have a little look at the Roman shield and spear used together.

Prussian M1811 ‘Blücher’ Sabre vs British 1796 Light Cavalry Sabre

The Prussian M1811 ‘Blücher’ sabre is often mistaken for the British 1796 light cavalry sabre. Here we take a look at the Prussian sword and see why Napoleon called the British a ‘nation of shop keepers’. Extra videos on Patreon:

Medieval Sword Books & Research – Oakeshott

Records of the Medieval Sword: Ewart Oakeshott’s books on medieval swords have yet to be surpassed, but it is really time that they are! Oakeshott created a great legacy and some people are leading some great research, but I’d really like to see some of this published in books soon.

Frontier Comfort Food In The Cabin – 18th Century Welsh Rabbit

The is the first official cooking episode in the cabin! It’s so exciting to finally be able to use this new location. Hope you enjoy this delicious comfort food. Perfect for the cold weather. Visit Our Website! ➧ ➧➧ Help support the channel with Patreon ➧ ➧➧ Facebook ➧ Instagram ➧ townsends_official

Napoleonic British Spadroons: Was the 1796 an IMPROVEMENT on what went before?

The British Army 1796 pattern spadroon (infantry officer’s sword) is often criticized, but how did it differ to what went before and was it worse, or actually an improvement? Extra videos on Patreon:

History Story Time Part 1: Battle of Waterloo Sword Fight

An account of single combat with swords during the Battle of Waterloo. D. A. Kinsley’s books:

Landsknecht Emporium Bauernwehr Review.

Two tasteful blades from Landsknecht, Overall 519mm, blade from the top of the Nagel 358mm, width at base 53mm. Available from

Military Sword Patterns or Models & Difficulties of Nomenclature

We normally name military sword types by model or pattern dates. But this often gets more complex than we would want and in some cases people use names that are flat out wrong. Antique swords for sale:

AGINCOURT – Medieval Myth Busting

We know a great deal about the Battle of Agincourt; but is what we know true? The battle of Agincourt has been depicted in plays, literature and films for generations. Each re-telling adding another layer to the myths, Laurence Olivier, Kenneth Branagh and most recently, 2019 The King, starring Timothée Chalamet. The Battle of Agincourt…

Viking Treasure Could Have Made Them a Fortune

Two British men who uncovered a 1,100-year-old trove were sentenced to years in prison for failing to report the find and selling the items piecemeal to dealers. Read more on

Viking Warriors Re-enactment | Walsworth Festival 2019 | WryngWyrm

Viking reenactment event with WryngWyrm at Waslworth Festical, UK. Stay in touch with us: Website: Facebook: Instagram:

Gippeswyc viking festival 2019

Ordgar brought their living history village to the Gippeswyc Viking festival. hosted by Blodorn Englar.

Slave Rebellion Reenactment

Slave Rebellion Reenactment is a community-engaged artist performance and film production that, on November 8-9, 2019, reimagined the German Coast Uprising of 1811, which took place in the river parishes just outside of New Orleans. Envisioned and organized by artist Dread Scott and documented by filmmaker John Akomfrah, Slave Rebellion Reenactment (SRR) animated a suppressed history of…

Secrets of medieval fire lighting in the winter forest

In the medieval era, most people would take a hot coal from the neighbour’s fire to get theirs going when it went out. But what about foresters, outlaws, poachers, charcoal burners and other woodsmen? Well, flint and steel firelighting was the method used for hundreds, if not thousands of years (Otzi). It may be that…

Sarasota Medieval Fair 2019 – Let the Dangerous Games begin! Opening Day – Full Tour & Review

Sarasota Medieval Fair 2019 is now open at the Sarasota State Fair Grounds from December 1st! This is my adventure of opening day at one of Florida’s Largest Renaissance festivals. There is much ahead !

How to make your digital WW2 reenactment photos look more authentic!

We usually use original period cameras during our WWII reenact events, but occasionally we do a photoshoot event were we use mostly digital cameras due to practical and also economical reasons as shooting hundreds of photos in one day using film can be expensive. I would highly recommend getting yourself a period-correct camera if you…

WWII battle reenactment – downtown Waxahachie, Texas

The city of Waxahachie, Texas, hosts a World War II reenactment in its historic downtown each year as part of the community’s recognition of Veterans Day. The video footage here was shot by Waxahachie Sun multi-media journalist Jo Ann Livingston and Sun contributing photographer Mike Sackett during the 2018 reenactment. During post-production, Sun multi-media journalist…

Short film on the theme of the American Civil War

Short film directed by Troupe 3e Rouen on the occasion of its summer camp 2019 on the theme of the American Civil War! North and South clash in total war

Thousands in Belarus reenact Napoleonic Wars battle

BORISOV, Belarus (AP) — Thousands of people have taken part in a reenactment of the Battle of Berezina, one of the major clashes of the Napoleonic Wars …

Brisbane Swords HEMA Gear

Helping the local HEMA community access quality training equipment for Historical European Martial Arts Facebook – Brisbane Swords HEMA Gear

Kram Liwocz

Wooden items for reenactors Facebook – Kram Liwocz


GoHurt – Medieval Sports Gear for medieval fighting – buhurts and profights. Weapons, armours, training equipment and more – everything you need to be a pro fighter! Facebook – GoHurt Website – gohurt-shop

Soviet military stuff

Soviet military stuff offers wide assortment of different military stuff like Ushanka hats, Afghanistan hats, military Berets and Caps, Pilotka hats, General and Admiral caps, USSR hat badges, Soviet winter uniforms and summer uniforms, boots, belts and accessories, tactical uniforms, camouflage uniforms warm hats with a mask and gloves and of course a lot of…

Viking Age Forged in Fire Competition @ Asfolk : The Seax

Thrand Travels to Asfolk Viking Martial Arts a HEMA and living history group in Eagan Minnesota to judge a Viking forged in fire style competition to build the famed historical seax or sax knife. The entire competition is done with Viking age or period tools such as tongs, anvils and hammers plus on the very…

SIGI Forge sword and buckler review.

Please excuse the clip out, I removed the point where the washing machine started singing.:) Specs for swords: Overall length – 97 cm / 38.2 in Blade length: 78 cm / 30.7 in Handle: 11 cm / 4.7 in Cross: 19 cm / 7.5 in POB: 7 cm / 2.7 in Flexibility: 11kg / 24.2lbs…

Chimney & Fireplace Before Snowfall? – Townsends Homestead Part 3

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Sword Fighting & Winter Clothing

Clothing can change close combat, especially sword fighting, hugely. Heavy winter clothing can approach armour in its defensiveness. Extra videos on Patreon:

Captive Ramrods on Muzzle Loading Guns

The importance of ramrods and the innovation of captive ramrods on antique firearms. Extar videos at Patreon:

Maybe spadroons were perfect swords in their time

I have said some negative things about spadroons in the past, but maybe we should be judging them in different ways.

14 Medieval Daggers

A video discussing 14 different medieval and renaissance daggers that I have made over the last few weeks. Looking at interesting features about each dagger and discussing them. No particular agenda or direction to the film; just some information and thoughts on a few medieval styles.

Napoleonic Naval Close Combat with Cutlass, Pistol & Bayonet – Lieut William Pringle Green

A fantastic manual on the use of close combat weapons during Napoleonic naval warfare is now available. The treatise of Lieut William Pringle Green:

Accuracy is the Best Weapon

Greetings, The following discussion is about accuracy and the assertion that “accuracy is the best weapon”. This will be discussed from three different points of view, all of which are relevant to those with an interest in swordplay. Accuracy is an element of which its importance cannot be denied, but for many where the application…

Dual Wielding Swords – The Same Across Martial Arts?

Is dual-wielding swords the same across different martial arts and periods?

How do you use a medieval lance rest?

Talos and Jason test out a medieval lance rest and try to uncover the forgotten techniques of the past. Credits: Talos Direction, Camera, Sound, Editing Kasumi Presenter Jason Kingsley OBE Tweets by RebellionJason Tweets by ModernHistoryTV Tweets by Rebellion Music licensed from PremiumBeat.

Weatherproofing and Insulating Your Log Cabin

Special thanks to Historic Martin’s Station and to David Cadle for sharing his expertise with us! Visit Our Website! ➧ ➧➧ Historical Martin’s Station Coming Soon! Help support the channel with Patreon ➧ ➧➧ Facebook ➧ Instagram ➧ townsends_official

Back Scabbards in China and Japan: When swords WERE worn on backs

Usually we say that swords worn on backs is something from the movies and not from history. But there are exceptions. Extra vids on Patreon:

Were AXES used as weapons in the ‘Age of Sail’ by Pirates & Sailors?

Boarding axes are featured fairly often in movies and TV set during the Age of Sail, by pirates and sailors. But were these axes really used very often as weapons? Extra videos on Patreon:

Meyer’s Four Types of Fencers: How we conceive of them and ourselves

And the first are those who, as soon as they can reach the opponent in the Onset, at once cut and thrust in with violence. The second are somewhat more moderate, and do not attack too crudely, but when an opponent has fully extended with a cut, fallen low with his weapon, or else has…

ARROWS vs ARMOUR – Medieval Myth Busting reply on St. Cripin’s Day!

Thrand test historical English Longbows / warbows on Historical plate and maille armour in honour of the battle of Agincourt1415 Oct 25th St. Crispin’s Day! This is a reply to Tod’s Workshop ARROWS vs ARMOUR Medieval Myth Busting one of the best Plate harness test to date on 15th century armour. Thrand uses Two longsbows…

Six Medieval Knife Sets… and a Rondel

Our medieval predecessors loved sets of knives; look for them and you see them everywhere. Individual knives or by knives are often found fitted into sword and dagger scabbards, but also larger sets of knives and tools can be found for hunting, surgery, serving and cooking, as well as eating irons.. This video looks at…

Medieval fighting techniques

Warlord, Jason and Dr. Guy Windsor look into a medieval fighting manual and discuss how one part of it might work when done in practise. Guy blogs about it here: Follow Jason on Twitter @RebellionJason Credits: Warlord Dr. Guy Windsor Direction, Camera, Sound, Editing Kasumi Presenter Jason Kingsley OBE Tweets by RebellionJason Tweets by…

Dane Axe vs Cavalry? Battle of Hastings & the Late-Viking Era

I have been asked a few times recently whether I think the late-Viking era Dane axe was an anti-cavalry weapon. Here are my thoughts. Extra vids on Patreon:

Medieval Shield Straps – The Guige

Medieval shield straps for wearing or suspending the shield around the neck or back are called the guige. Here I look at their possible uses and advantages. Extra videos on Patreon:

Oakeshott Xa Knight Sword From Dynasty Forge – Reviewed

Looking at the medieval Knight arming sword from Dynasty Forge. What’s good, what’s not so good. As well as some general discussion about knightly arming swords.

Sword Wall Progress + Handkerchief Cutter Sword

A quick look at how my ‘sword wall’ is progressing and a quick look at a new acquisition – a Wilkinson ‘handkerchief cutter’ sword. Extra videos on Patreon:

Will The Roof Hold Up? – Townsends Homestead Part 2

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A Wonderful Struggle: The 16th Century Art of Civic Combat, Part 1

There is a particular tension at play in the modern Historical European Martial Arts community regarding the the early and later period expressions of the German fighting system known as Kunst Des Fechtens or “Art of Fencing.” The former is dominated by the Gesellschaft Liechtenauer, a set of masters and teachers that have a direct…

Arrows vs Armour – What YOU had to say…

Medieval Mythbusting – Your Questions Answered. We received a LOT of comments on our ARROWS vs ARMOUR video, so this is a video to answer some of those questions. We look at the armour quality and steel, the arrows and heads and how they were constructed, the English longbow and how it was shot, blunt…

Gallowglass Donegal Axe, Arms & Armor

Thrand interviews Craig Johnson at arms and armor in Minneapolis Minnesota with Dimicator or Roland Warzecha. Thrand recently did a Live feed and was asked about the Donegal axe from the Museum in Dublin Ireland so this is the exciting follow up.

Essential Frontier Tools – An Axe For Every Job

Axes We Offer! ➧ ➧➧ Eric Sloane’s Books ➧ ➧➧ Visit Our Website! ➧ ➧➧ Help support the channel with Patreon ➧ ➧➧ Sign up for the YouTube Mailing List! ➧ ➧➧ Twitter ➧ @Jas_Townsend Facebook ➧ Instagram ➧ townsends_official

The Secret of the Roman Army Shield – Mind Blown!

I have discovered the real secret to the Roman Army shield (scutum) and it will literally blow your mind. Shield from Fabrica Cacti, sword from Dynasty Forge.

Check Your Height

Greetings, Much has been said in various manuals and treatises about the combat of the short fencer against the tall fencer and also vice versa. These are considerations of note and need to be taken into account. What does not seem to appear all that often are considerations of teaching a shorter or taller student…

Roman Mainz Gladius By Dynasty Forge – Review

Looking at the Mainz Gladius (Roman Sword) replica by Dynasty Forge. Product: Dynasty Forge direct: The Knight Shop:

Rifle vs Musket – 19th Century Military History

Looking specifically at the P1853 Rifle vs the East India Company Model F smoothbore musket here, but considering the wider implications of gun development in the middle of the 19th century. Extra videos on Patreon:

Spies, Espionage, And Secret Writing In 1770’s

A special thanks to Brian Allison for sharing the expertise with us! See Brian’s website here ➧ ➧➧ Visit Our Website! ➧ ➧➧ Help support the channel with Patreon ➧ ➧➧ Sign up for the YouTube Mailing List! ➧ ➧➧ Twitter ➧ @Jas_Townsend Facebook ➧ Instagram ➧ townsends_official

Swordfish — Where the dream of the sword comes alive

We had a chat with Dennis Ljungqvist—three time Swordfish longsword champion—about why the historical fencing event Swordfish is so important and what it means to him. “We aren’t here to to test ourselves. We’re here to test you”. The words came from a Polish fencer at Swordfish, the premier historical fencing event in the world,…

A New Hope, For Throats.

What I hope may be a simple solution to several ongoing safety issues.

Mair Dagger 2

A breakdown of Paulus Hector Mair’s second dagger play, taken at our mixed weapons class in Crystal Palace, London.

Viking vs Dervish: Similarities of Weapons

Separated by 1000 years and thousands of miles, at first sight there isn’t much to compare between the Beja warriors of the Sudan and the warriors of early-medieval Scandinavia known as vikings. But there are some similarities in the weapons they used. Extra videos on Patreon:

Making and testing a heavy medieval lance

Jason makes a heavy medieval lance and tests it on horseback. Credits: Talos Direction, Camera, Sound, Editing Kasumi Presenter Jason Kingsley OBE Tweets by RebellionJason Tweets by ModernHistoryTV Tweets by Rebellion Music licensed from PremiumBeat.

Roman ‘Scutum’ Shield From Fabrica Cacti – First Look

A first look at the great training shields (Roman scutum) from Fabrica Cacti. The Roman scutum is probably the most important weapon in understanding the Roman Army’s battle tactics. Fabrica Cacti: Extra videos on Patreon:

The Roman Gladius (Sword) ‘Guard’

The Roman sword’s guard wasn’t really a guard in the way we normally mean that word. Extra videos on Patreon:

Townsends Homestead Part One – Building Log Cabin Walls

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When Short Swords Are Better Than Long Swords

In most situations a longer weapon, with more reach, seems like a good idea. But there is one REALLY important aspect in which a shorter weapon is more handy.

How To Use A Spear – Part 1, Changing Grip

How were spears used in ancient and medieval times? In the first part, we look at plausible ways to change the side and method of gripping the spear. Extra videos on Patreon:

160lbs Longbow vs 860lbs Crossbow – Speed and Accuracy Test

Shooting a HEAVY medieval longbow against a HEAVY medieval crossbow to look at the speed of shooting and the level of accuracy each of these classic weapons can achieve. How many shots will the longbow get off against the crossbow? Which is more accurate? These trials are very set around a chat between Joe Gibbs,…

HEMA is for everyone!

Competitions can be great for martial arts, but let’s not forget that most people who practice martial arts don’t want to compete.

Revenge of the Smith. Marco Danelli Smallswords review.

Marco went away, now he is ready to reaveal himself. But was it worth the wait for episode 3?

Are Axes Easier To Use Than Swords?

Lots of people describe weapons like axes, maces or hammers as ‘easier to use’ than swords. But is that correct? What does that even mean? More videos on Patreon: